Emeralds, also known as “panna” in the Hindi language, belong to the beryl mineral family
characterized by a bluish green colour.
The most sought after emeralds are bluish green to pure green, with vivid colour saturation,
high transparency and even distribution of colour. Stones without eye-visible inclusions are
thus extremely rare and valuable. Due to the included nature of emeralds, many are treated
with oil or polymers to improve their clarity. Untreated “no oil” emeralds would be deemed
relatively of higher value, as it means that the gemstones naturally have no surface
Colombia is home to some of the finest emeralds, followed by Zambian and Panchsher
emeralds. They are also found in Brazil and Russia.
The word ruby originates from ruber, Latin for red. The ancient Sanskrit word for ruby,
“Ratnaraj”, means “King of Precious Stones”. Rubies belong to the corundum family
characterized by a striking red colour.
Rubies with no clarity enhancement, called natural rubies, are the most valuable. Less than
10% of all gem-quality rubies are unheated, making them rare and impressive. This
mesmerizing stone stands for love, passion and power.
Rubies are found in very few locations around the globe. Burma (Myanmar), Ceylon (Sri
Lanka), Siam (Vietnam), Mozambique and Thailand are sources of some of the finest rubies
in the world. The most vivid and highly prized colour of ruby is referred to as “pigeon’s
blood”, a term that originated in Myanmar.
Sapphires, like rubies, are part of the corundum family, and come in a variety of colours;
blue being the most prized one.
For centuries, sapphires have been associated with royalty. Only a small number of natural
sapphires have vibrant and intense colour without some type of enhancement, the most
common used is heat-treatment. The most desirable sapphires are known to have a strong
colour saturation, regardless of the hue.
Sapphires are found in the mines of Kashmir, Burma and Sri Lanka. Held in the highest
regard are those which come from Kashmir. They are known for their velvety and deeply
saturated blue colour making them the archetype for blue sapphires.